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|Title:||Cellular and Molecular Effects of High-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression|
|Keywords:||blood sampling; anticoagulants; MMP-9; high-molecular-weight heparin; IL-16; sICAM-1; IL-8; monocytes; T cells|
|Publisher:||International Journal of Molecular Science|
|Abstract:||Blood sampling with different anticoagulants alters matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-) 9 expression, thus influencing its concentration and diagnostic validity. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of different anticoagulants on MMP-9 regulation. MMP-9 expression was assessed in response to ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, citrate, and high-/low-molecular-weight heparin (HMWH, LMWH) in co-culture experiments using THP-1, Jurkat, and HT cells (representing monocytes, T, and B cells). Triple and double cell line co-culture experiments revealed that HMWH treatment of THP-1 and Jurkat led to a significant MMP-9 induction, whereas other anticoagulants and cell type combinations had no effect. Supernatant of HMWH-treated Jurkat cells also induced MMP-9 in THP-1 suggesting monocytes as MMP-9 producers. HMWH-induced cytokine/chemokine secretion was assessed in co-culture supernatant, and the influence of cytokines/chemokines on MMP-9 production was analyzed. These experiments revealed that Jurkat-derived IL-16 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-) 1 are able to induce MMP-9 and IL-8 production by THP-1. As a consequence, the increased MMP-9 expression found in HMWH blood samples may be influenced by HMWH-dependent secretion of IL-16 and sICAM-1 by T cells resulting in an increased production of MMP-9 and IL-8 by monocytes. IL-8, in turn, may support MMP-9 and its own expression in a positive autocrine feedback loop.|
|Appears in Collections:||Journals|
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